The Evolution of Plastic Surgery
1. The Ancient Era
The record of 'reconstructive surgery for cut-off nose' in ancient India in 800 B.C (recorded in the scriptures of Brahmanism)
2. The 16th-19th Century
During this period, due to frequent wars, plastic surgery also encountered the Renaissance.
- The techonology of dermal tissues grafting was first introduced.
- Around the 15th century, G. Taliacozzi, the founder of plastic surgery, performed a nose surgery using upper arm flap.
- Nose surgery using forehead flap done in India in 1974 is still considered one of the best historical method of reconstructive plastic surgery.
- In the early 19th century, plastic surgery with various reconstructive surgeries began establishing in academical systems.
- in 1809, Von Graele began 'the first blepharoplasty'
- in 1823, Bunger began the surgery of 'autologous dermal tissue draft'
- in 1838, as Zies published his book, the term 'Plastic Surgery' began to be widely used.
- In the late 19th century, full/partial thickness skin grafting by adjusting the thickness began.
3. The early and mid 20th Century
- In 1914 during the WW1, the plastic surgery center (French army) was opened due to many bullet wounded soldiers. Gillies from UK and Blair and Ivy from USA began the innovative reconstructive surgeries.
- In 1931, around 10 surgeons established 'The American Society Plastic Surgeons' (ASPS)
- In 1939, during WW1, many active researches for syntripsis, burn and nerve damage led plastic surgery into the growth period.
4. The late 20th century
- In 1962, Cronin first performed 'Breast augmentation using a silicon implant'
- In 1967, 'skull and facial bone surgery' was presented
- The field of plastic surgery was extended to not only in the human body but also in the skull and facial bones.
- In 1970, 'micro joining plastic surgery' using a microscope was introduced.
- The field of organ transplantation was made due to the development of digital replantation, blood vessel inosculation and nerve connecting surgery.
- Murray, a plastic surgeon first succeeded in a 'kidney transplantation'
- In 1980s and 1990s, flap operation and cosmetic surgery for all parts of the body began to be developed.
WHAT IS PLASTIC SURGERY?
Plastic surgery can be explained as one of the surgical fields for recovering birth defects or acquired defects and for appearance improvement.